History of Psychology

Map and Timeline:  The 1800s


Europe in 1815, after Napoleon's defeat

1801  Pinel writes text on Moral Therapy

1804  Immanuel Kant dies

1804  Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of France

1807  Hegel completes The Phenomenology of Spirit

1808  Reil coins term "psychiatry"

1810  Gall publishes the first volume of Anatomie et Physiologie du Systèm Nerveux

1811  Sir Charles Bell reports to associates at a dinner party the anatomical separation of sensory and motor function of spinal cord

1815  Napoleon surrenders at Waterloo; the Peace of Paris ends the Napoleonic Wars; the Congress of Vienna firms up the old European monarchies

1816  Johann Friedrich Herbart publishes Lehrbuch zur Psychologie

  Herbart's text introduces the concept of repression
1819  Schopenhauer writes  The World as Will and Idea

1822  Francis Magendie publishes an article which postulates the separation of sensory and motor function of the spinal cord

1831  Goethe completes Faust -- he dies the following year

1834 Johannes Müller publishes Handbüch des Physiologie des Menschen

1834  The German Customs Union - a major step towards German unification
1835  Colt invents the revolver

1842  Auguste Comte completes his six-volume Course in Positive Philosophy

1843  Kierkegaard publishes Either/Or and Fear and Trembling

1845 Morton uses ether as an anesthetic
        The Irish famine -- over one million die and another million leave Ireland
1847 Marx and Engels publish The Communist Manifesto
1848  Haucock performs first appendix operation

1855 Herbert Spencer publishes the two volumes of the Principles of Psychology

  Alexander Bain publishes The Senses and the Intellect
1856 Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz publishes the first volume of the Handbuch der physiologischen Optik

1859 Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of the Species

  Alexander Bain publishes The Emotions and the Will
1860 Gustav Fechner publishes The Elements of Psychophysics

1861 Paul Broca shows that the loss of speech in one individual is due to a lesion in third convolution of the left frontal lobe

1861  Italy is united under Victor Emmanuel II for the first time since the Roman Empire
        The abolition of serfdom in Russia frees 40 million serfs
1862-1865  The American Civil War frees 4 million slaves -- over 600,000 soldiers die

1863 Wilhelm Wundt publishes Lectures on  Human and Animal Psychology

  I. M. Sechenov publishes a monograph Reflexes of the Brain, in which he attempted to analyze the higher order functions in terms of the reflex schema
1864 Louis Pasteur invents "pasteurization"

1865  Mendel discovers the laws of genetics

1867  Lister invents antiseptic surgery

1869 Francis Galton publishes Hereditary Genius and uses the normal distribution for purposes of classification

  Von Hartmann writes Philosophy of the Unconscious
1870  G. Fritsch and E. Hitzig realize the first direct electric stimulation of the brain

1870  The Dogma of Papal Infallibility announced
1870 - 1871  The Franco-Prussian War

1871  Charles Darwin publishes The Descent of Man

1871 Germany finally united under Prussian leadership:  "The Second Reich"

1873  Wundt publishes Principles of Physiological Psychology

1874  Franz Brentano publishes Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint

1876  Alexander Bain establishes Mind, the first journal devoted to psychological research

1879  Wundt establishes the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany

  Lightner Witmer uses the term clinical psychology for the first time
1882  Charcot opens clinic at Salpetriere
  Christine Ladd Franklin completes the doctoral program in mathematics at Johns Hopkins -- no degree granted due to prohibition against granting doctorates to women!
1883  Francis Galton publishes Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development
  Wundt establishes the journal Philosophische Studien to publish the results of his laboratory research

  Kraepelin publishes list of disorders

  Nietzsche publishes Thus Spake Zarathustra

1884 William James publishes What  is an Emotion?

1885  Hermann Ebbinghaus writes On Memory

1885-6  Freud studies hypnotism under Charcot

1886 Louis Pasteur cures rabies

1889  William James publishes The Principles of Psychology

1890  Ehrenfels writes About the Qualities of the Gestalt

1892  The American Psychological Association is founded with 42 members

  Edward Titchener introduces his version of Wundt's structuralism to America.
1893  Oswald Külpe publishes Outline of Psychology

1894  John Dewey publishes The Ego as Cause

  Margaret Floy Washburn becomes the first woman to receive a PhD in psychology;  Her dissertation was supervised by Titchener
1895 Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud publish Studies in Hysteria
  Gustave Le Bon publishes Psychologie des Foules
1896  Dewey publishes in the Psychological Review his famous article The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology
  Lightner Witmer establishes at the University of Pennsylvania a clinic of psychology, the first psychological clinic in America and perhaps in the world
1897  Wundt publishes Outlines of Psychology

1898  Titchener publishes The Postulates of a Structural Psychology

  E. L. Thorndike publishes Animal Intelligence

© Copyright C. George Boeree 2000