Map and Timeline:  The 1900s


Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis Behaviorism Phenomenology, Gestalt, Humanism, and Existentialism
Cognitive Psychology/ Artificial Intelligence Modern Medicine and Physiology

1863  Sekhenov:  Reflexes of the Brain






1866  Gregor Mendel discovers the principles of heredity
1869  von Hartmann:  Philosophy of the Unconscious



1870  The Dogma of Papal Infallibility announced
1870 - 1871  The Franco-Prussian War
1871 - The foundation of the German Reich, with Prussia in the driver's seat


1874  Brentano:  Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint

1882 Charcot opens clinic at Salpetriere



1883  Kraepelin publishes list of disorders
1883  Nietzsche publishes Thus Spake Zarathustra

1885-6  Freud studies hypnosis with Charcot

1885  Hermann Ebbinghaus: On Memory


1890  Ehrenfels:  About the Qualities of the Gestalt

1895  Breuer and Freud:  Studies in Hysteria


1895   Roentgen invents the X-ray
1900  Freud:  Interpretation of Dreams
1900  Husserl:  Logical Investigations


1906  Pavlov publishes first conditioning studies

1906  Golgi and Ramon y Cajal win the Nobel for discovering the synapse
1907  Jung meets Freud; Adler invited to join Freud's circle 1907  Bekhterev:  Objective Psychology


1909  Freud, Jung, et al speak at Clark University







1910  Thomas Morgan discovers chromosomes
1911  Adler forms his own Individual Psychology society 1911  Thorndike:  Animal Intelligence



1912  McDougall:  Psychology:  The Study of Behavior 1912  Wertheimer publishes paper on perception of movement


1913  Watson:  Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It 1913  Köhler does chimpanzee studies

1914  Jung splits from Freud, begins his "dark years"



1914  World War I begins:  Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo; Russia backs Serbia; Germany honors alliance with Austria-Hungary and declares war on France when it refuses neutrality and honors its alliance with Russia; Germany invades Belgium and Great Britain steps in
1917  The Russian Revolution
1917  The US enters the war
1918  Armistice is declared
1919  The Treaty of Versailles:  Breakup of the Austrian-Hungarian Emprie and severe punishment of Germany


1921  The Gestalt journal Psychologische Forschung first published
1921  Loewi discovers the first neurotransmitter, acetylcholine
1922  Fascist Mussolini granted unrestricted power in Italy
1922  Irish Free State established

1922  Tolman presents "a new formula for behaviorism"




1923  Wertheimer:  Laws of Organization



1924  Koffka:  The Growth of Mind





1926  Hermann J. Muller creates mutations in fruit flies with X-rays
1927  Alfred Adler: Understanding Human Nature

1927  Köhler:  The Mentality of Apes



1927  Heidegger:  Being and Time





1929  Berger invents the EEG
1929  Stalin establishes totalitarian rule in the Soviet Union
1929  The collapse of the New York Stock Market and causes the depression - depression follows next year in Europe

1930  Skinner publishes his first paper on conditioning




1932  Tolman:  Purposive Behavior in Men and Animals
1932  Jean Piaget: The Moral Judgement of the Child

1933  Hitler sworn in as Chancellor:  basic civil rights suspended "to protect the German people"


1935  Lewin:  A Dynamic Theory of Personality
1935  Moniz performs the first lobotomy
1936  Anna Freud:  The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense


1936  Alan M. Turing, of Cambridge
publishes a paper which introduces the Turing machine.

1936 - 1939  The Spanish Civil War:  fascist Franco wins
1937  Karen Horney:  The Neurotic Personality of our Time

1937  Allport:  Personality


1938  Skinner:  The Behavior of Organisms

1938  The first use of electroshock
1938  Austrians choose to become a part of Germany
1939  World War II begins:  Germany takes over Czechoslovakia and proceeds to invade Poland; Britain and France declare war on Germany; Russia takes eastern Poland and invades Finland
1939 - 1941  Action T4 - the systematic extermination of people with physical or mental abilities - in effect in Germany
1940 - Germany takes Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, and Belgium; by June, Paris has fallen; Italy allies with Germany



1940 Ludwig von Bertalanffy: Problems of Life


1941  Fromm:  Escape from Freedom

1941  Germany invades Russia without warning; Japan attacks Pearl Harbor; US and Soviet Union enter war against Germany, Italy, Japan, and their allies
1942  Systematic extermination of Jews and other "undesirables" (Romany, labor unionists, communists, homosexuals...) begins



1942  Jean Piaget: Psychology of Intelligence.

1943  Hull:  Principles of Behavior 1943  Binswanger:  Grundformen und Erkenntnis
menschlichen Daseins


1943  Italy falls to the allies



1944  Turing: Machine Intelligence
1944  Operation Overlord, the invasion at Normandy, begins
1945  Germany surrenders; Hitler commits suicide
1945  US drops atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima; Japan surrenders
World War II cost over 55 million lives
1945  The UN is established;  the "Cold War" between the US and the USSR begins



1945  John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert and their team at the University of Pennsylvania, complete ENIAC
1946  India becomes independent;  French, British, and other empires begin to disintegrate


1947  Goldstein:  The Organism


1948  Skinner:  Walden II 1948  Frankl:  Experiences in a Concentration Camp 1948  Norbert Wiener: Cybernetics
1948  The state of Israel is declared, despite strong Arab opposition



1949  Donald Hebb: The Organization of Behavior. 1949  John Cade discovers the beneficial effects of lithium
1950  Erik Erikson: Childhood and Society

1950  Rollo May: The Meaning of Anxiety


1950 - 1953  The Korean War;  North Korea was supported by the Chinese, South Korea by the UN, especially the US


1951  Rogers:  Client-Centered Therapy





1952  Laborit discovers the first antipsychotic drug, chlorpromazine (Thorazine)




1953  Watson and Crick discover the structure of the DNA molecule
1954  Carl Jung: Von dem Wurzeln des Bewusstseins

1954  Gordon Allport: The Nature of Prejudice

1954  Olds discovers the "pleasure center" of rats


1954  Abraham Maslow: Motivation and Personality




1955  George Kelly: Psychology of Personal Constructs





1956  George A. Miller publishes 7 +/- 2 paper.
1956  The Hungarian Revolution squashed by Russian troops; many fear World War III
1957  The European Economic Union ("Common Market") established
1957  Sputnik - the first satellite - launched into space


1957  Albert Ellis: How to Live with a Neurotic
1957  Noam Chomsky: Syntactic Structures



1960  Miller: Plans and the Structure of Behavior


1961  May, et al edit Existential Psychology

1961  Yuri Gagarin - the first man in space
1961  The Berlin Wall erected
1962  The Cuban missle crisis:  Russians try to put nuclear weapons in Cuba and the US blockades; we come very close to a nuclear World War III




1963  Sernbach discovers the antianxiety drug diasepam (Valium)

1967  Hans Eysenck: The Biological Basis of Personality
1967  Ulric Neisser: Cognitive Psychology



1969  ARPANET (future Internet) links first two computers at UCLA and Stanford Research Institute.
1969  Neil Armstrong - the first man on the moon




1972  Hounsfield invents the CAT scan

1973  Albert Bandura: Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis


1973  Snyder and Pert discover endorphin




1974  D. T. Wong discovers fluoxetine (Prozac)
1975  The Fall of Saigon ends the Vietnam War; Vietnam had been fighting for self-rule since 1945, first against the French and since 1959 against the US



1976  Neisser: Cognition and Reality




1977  Damadian's first MRI




1977  a virus is the first creature to have its complete genome revealed



1980  First AAAI conference at Stanford




1981  the PET scan invented
1989  The Berlin Wall comes down; Germany is reunited
1991  Mikhail Gobachev orders the dismantling of the Soviet Union; the Cold War ends



1997  "Deep Blue" beats Kasparov, the best chess player in the world.




2000  HGP and Celera announce that they have completed working drafts of the human genome
(The New Millennium Begins!)