Exam 1 covers all of the material on minerals and rocks, including the labs. Refer to the syllabus for readings and lecture topics.

Note: This is NOT intended to provide a comprehensive review. The questions below are examples of the type of questions that you should expect on the exam.

True or false?

__T__ (1) Quartz is the only silicate mineral containing no cations other than silicon.

__F__ (2) Individual clay crystals are large enough to be seen with the naked eye.

__T__ (3) The most common sedimentary rocks are shale, sandstone, and limestone.

__T__ (4) Glassy igneous rocks form when the magma cools so fast that mineral grains cannot crystallize and grow.

__T__ (5) Calcite is the main mineral constituent of the sedimentary rock limestone and the metamorphic rock marble.

Multiple choice.

__D__ (6) The tendency for a mineral to break along flat surfaces is:

(a) fracture
(b) luster
(c) faceting
(d) cleavage

__C__ (7) An example of a silicate mineral based on a sheet structure of silicate tetrahedra (sharing of three oxygen atoms per tetrahedron) is:

(a) olivine
(b) augite
(c) muscovite mica
(d) quartz

__B__ (8) The most abundant igneous rock in continental crust is:

(a) basalt
(b) granite
(c) rhyolite
(d) gabbro

__C__ (9) The rock cycle refers to the fact that:

(a) rocks remain the same over time
(b) igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks do not change over time
(c) rocks continually transform from one type to another over time
(d) sedimentary rocks lithify to form igneous rocks

__B__ (10) Intrusive igneous rocks form when magma solidifies

(a) on the earth's surface
(b) within the earth, before it can rise all the way to the surface
(c) in the core
(d) on the sea floor

__A__ (11) The changes in rock caused by migrating hot water and by ions dissolved in the hot water is called:

(a) hydrothermal metamorphism
(b) cementation
(c) lithification
(d) skarn production

__B__ (12) The process by which rocks and mineral change due to changes in temperature, pressure, or other environmental conditions is called:

(a) lithification
(b) metamorphism
(c) cementation
(d) stratification

__C__ (13) Which rock forms through metamorphism of limestone?

(a) migmatite
(b) amphibolite
(c) marble
(d) quartzite


Short answer.

(14, 8 points) Diagram, label, and explain the differences between crust/mantle and lithosphere/asthenosphere.

[SEE TEXT]


(15 - 9 points). State three diagnostic properties (lab tests) of minerals that differ significantly between galena and quartz, then state the corresponding characteristic for each mineral.

Property
Galena characteristic
Quartz characteristic

Specific Gravity
very high
average
Cleavage
3 planes, 90°
none
Luster
metallic
vitreous


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