Toru Sato

Shippensburg University

Research Interests

It may be because Toru has lived in eight different countries that he is interested in cultural differences. But then again, it may not. Why he also has a general interest in consciousness, depth psychology, and transpersonal psychology is still a mystery.

Publications for the General Public:

Sato, T. (2008). The gradual blooming process of consciousness. SpandaNews, Vol. II, 4, A bimonthly newsletter published by the Spanda Foundation.

Sato, T. (2008). Codependence explained in psychological terms. (online magazine)

Sato, T. (2003). The ever-transcending spirit: The psychology of human relationships, consciousness, and development. Lincoln, Nebraska: iUniverse. Click here for the 2009 Revised Online Version (pdf format)

Academic Publications:

Taras, V., Sarala, R., Muchinsky, P., Kemmelmeier, M., Singelis, T. M., Avsec, A., Coon, H. M., Dinnel, D. L., Gardner, W. Grace, S., Hardin, E. E., Hsu, S., Johnson, J., Karakitapoğlu A. Z., Kashima, E. S., Kolstad, A., Milfont, T. L., Oetzel, J., Okazaki, S., Probst, T. M., Sato, T., Shafiro, M., Schwartz, S. J., Sinclair, H. C. (2014). The opposite ends of the same stick? Multi-method test of the dimensionality of individualism and collectivism.  Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 213-245.

Sato, T., Harman, B. A., Adams, L. T., Evans, J. V., & Coolsen, M. K. (2013). The cell phone reliance scale: Validity and reliability. Individual Differences Research, 11, 121-132.

Sato, T. (2012). The descent and ascent upon the ladder of consciousness. Spanda Journal: Consciousness & Development 2.0, III-1, 113-116.

Sato T., Harman, B. A., Murray, C. A., Grookett, C. M. (2012).  Sociotropy-autonomy and self-control.  In A. Durante & C. Mammoliti (Ed.), Psychology of Self-Control (pp. 69-96).  Hauppage, New York: Nova Science.

Harman, B. A., & Sato, T. (2011). Cell phone use and grade point average among undergraduate university students. College Student Journal, 45, 544-549.

Sato, T., Ficiak, S. J., Baum, S., Murray, C. A., McGoff, E. P., Slacum, K. M., & Markle, J. A. (2011). Personality, music, and problem solving. In A. M. Columbus (Ed.), Advances in Psychology Research (vol. 73, pp. 69-87). Hauppage, New York: Nova Science.

Sato, T., Harman, B. A., Donohoe, W. M., Weaver, A., & Hall, W. A. (2010). Individual differences in ego-depletion: The role of sociotropy-autonomy. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 205-213.

Sato, T., & Gonzalez, M. A. (2009). Interpersonal patterns in close relationships: The role of sociotropy-autonomy. British Journal of Psychology, 100, 327-345.

Sato, T., Feight, K., Goshorn, J., Materek, A., Scott, V. L., Spohn, K., & Gonzalez, M. A. (2009). Interaction patterns of sociotropic and autonomous individuals. In A. T. Heatherton & V. A. Walcott (Eds.), Handbook of Social Interactions in the 21st Century (pp. 265-289). Hauppage, New York: Nova Science.

Sato, T. (2007). The Family Allocentrism-Idiocentrism Scale: Convergent validity and construct exploration. Individual Differences Research, 5, 194-200.

Sato, T. (2007). The psychometric properties of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Brief Version. In L. S. Boyar (Ed.), New Psychological Tests and Testing Research (pp. 105-120). Hauppage, New York: Nova Science.

Sato, T. & McCann, D. (2007). Sociotropy-autonomy and interpersonal problems. Depression and Anxiety, 24, 153-162.

Sato, T. (2005). The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire brief version: Factor structure and reliability. The Journal of Psychology, 139, 545-552.

Sato, T. (2005). The internal conflict model: A theoretical framework for integration. The Humanistic Psychologist, 33, 33-44.

Sato, T., McCann, D., & Ferguson-Isaac, C. (2004). Sociotropy and autonomy and situation specific anxiety. Psychological Reports, 94, 67-76.

Sato, T. (2004). Fear and the development of problematic interpersonal patterns. In P. L. Gower (Ed.), Psychology of Fear (pp. 53-61). Hauppage, New York: Nova Science.

Sato, T. (2003). Sociotropy and autonomy: The nature of vulnerability. The Journal of Psychology, 137, 447-466.

Sato, T., & McCann, D. (2002). Advances in the study of sociotropy-autonomy and depression. In S. P. Shohov, (Ed.), Advances in Psychological Research (vol. 17, pp. 35-53). Hauppage, New York: Nova Science.

Sato, T. (2001). Autonomy and relatedness in psychopathology and treatment: A cross-cultural formulation. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 127, 89-127.

Sato, T. (2000). Personal Style Inventory II. In J. Maltby, C. A. Lewis, & A. Hill, (Eds.), Commissioned Reviews on 250 Psychological Tests (vol. 1, pp. 371-374). Lampeter, Wales, UK: Edwin Mellen Press.

Sato, T. (2000). Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale, Revised. In J. Maltby, C. A. Lewis, & A. Hill, (Eds.), Commissioned Reviews on 250 Psychological Tests (vol. 1, pp. 427-430). Lampeter, Wales, UK: Edwin Mellen Press.

Sato, T. (2000). Family Allocentrism Scale. In J. Maltby, C. A. Lewis, & A. Hill, (Eds.), Commissioned Reviews on 250 Psychological Tests (vol. 2, pp. 489-491). Lampeter, Wales, UK: Edwin Mellen Press.

McCann, D., & Sato, T. (2000). Personality, cognition, and the self. European Journal of Personality, 14, 449-461.

Sato, T., & McCann, D. (2000). Sociotropy-autonomy and the Beck Depression Inventory. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 16, 66-76.

Sato, T. (1999). Seasonal Affective disorder. In D. Levinson, J. J. Ponzetti, Jr., & P. F. Jorgensen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Human Emotions (Vol. 2, pp. 590-593). New York:  Macmillan Reference USA.

Sato, T., & Cameron, J. E. (1999). The relationship between collective self-esteem and self-construal in Japan and Canada. Journal of Social Psychology, 139, 426-435.

Sato, T. (1998). Agency and communion: The relationship between therapy and culture. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 4, 278-290.

Sato, T., & McCann, D. (1998). Individual differences in relatedness and individuality: An exploration of two constructs. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 847-859.

Lay, C., Fairlie, P., Jackson, S., Ricci, T., Eisenberg, J., Sato, T., Teeäär, A., Melamud, A. (1998). Domain-specific allocentrism-idiocentrism: A measure of family connectedness. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29, 434-460.

Sato, T. (1997). Seasonal affective disorder and phototherapy: A critical review. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 164-168.

Sato, T., & McCann, D. (1997). Vulnerability factors in depression: The facets of Sociotropy and Autonomy. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 19, 41-62.

Sato, T. (1996). Type I and type II error in multiple comparisons. The Journal of Psychology, 130, 293-302.

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